: “Over the last fifteen years, the development of the process of globalization and a reference of various cultural identities have coexisted in the world: religious, national, ethnic, territorial, gender and other specific ones. The two processes take place at the same time ”(2004: 17). The sociologist argues that this reinforcement of local identities arises to balance the tendency to establish a universal culture, coupled with globalization, and that it has largely been possible for nation-states, which occupied a preeminent place during modernity, have yielded power, to understand us, “upwards” (towards supranational beings,

Therefore, such as in Europe the EU) and “down” (towards subnational entities: regions, municipalities, etc.). In other words, we individuals want to be part of a global world because that is where humanity is hea and because we see the benefits, especially in terms of access to information, wealth, and progress, but we want to do so without losing our personal identity and even more reinforcing it (individualization ).  we want to preserve our social identity, which defines us as members of local society, so that we can participate in globalization without disfiguring ourselves. Thus, Castells highlights two types of identities that are especially “resistant”: religious and national.

At The Same Time

In Europe, religious identity is quantitatively unimportant; national identity, on the other hand, is what drives the resurgence we are talking about. Castells: “The idea is that the moment the state is deprived of an identity force that sustains its difficult maneuver in the Mexico Phone Number  rorld of globalization, it tries to relegit itself by calling its people back, it is to that is, their nation ”(2004: 27). Globalization, identity and diversity in Catalonia And in a territory that is not a state (despite being part of one state or another), but with a population that has a strong national feeling, how do these phenomena materialize? We are not leaving Castells at the moment, because the sociologist

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tells us some very interesting things about it: “[…] It should be noted thatNew imagein this database [the World Value Survey ] Catalonia or the Basque Country appear as a regional identity […] by global geographical areas, it turns out that the area where the primary local regional identity is the highest percentage – reaches 61% of the set of identities – it is precisely Southern Europe ”(2004: 18). Catalonia, a territory that has defined itself several times as a nation. Whose inhabitants have their own common. language and history and which for a hundred years.

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Therefore, has exhibited a social and political ideology – Catalanism – that wants to put de relleu la identitat catalana enfront de la identitat espanyola, és un exemple de persistència de la identitat social de què parla Castells. But what kind of identity are we talking about, exactly. The sociologist distinguishes legitimizing identities , constructed from the will of a state. Identities of resistance , which arise from a feeling of marginalization, of rejection. And project identities , in which one or more social groups decide to build their identity. On the basis of a common language, culture, and history, and project it into the future. It seems clear to us that Catalan society has never

Therefore, had its own institutions strong and established enough to legitimize Catalan identity as defined by Castells. And that it has been alternating, in the recent past and until now, the other two types. Of identity: that of resistance, in times of lack of freedoms (not to be far behind. During the dictatorships of Primo de Rivera and Franco) and the project. When the laws of Spain have made it possible (early twentieth century, with the Commonwealth. And from the recovery of democracy in Spain and the approval of the 1978 Constitution). At the moment, Catalan

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