The need to cover (increasingly expensive) war expenses forced  structure which, in addition to collecting ordinary tax revenue, could obtain extraordinary tax revenues through public debt. But who would invest in public debt if the absolute state had a long tradition of defaults and bankruptcies. That’s why financial groups, to cover their backs, charged very high interest rates. Absolute monarchy was thus in the hands of speculators . Absolute regimes. despite their pretensions, could not obtain credit or set taxes at will.

Only governments  could achieve large tax revenues and negotiate loans of considerable volume. Let us now consider the other way, that of the consolidation and transformation of representative governments which limit the powers of the monarch. In some parts of Europe. Traditional parliaments were undergoing a process of transformation. That allowed them to go from being a mere reflection of medieval estate societies to effectively. Representing the dominant economic and social interests of their environment.

With Strong Representative Institutions

In the British case , Parliament retained its ability to limit royal power and laid the groundwork for a “national” policy as the various interest groups that had access to it learned to Bahrain Phone Number egotiate, making it easier to that a policy of consensus be formulat. The multiplication by the press of the publications of the news, favor the appearance of a public opinion that could feel implied in these debates although it could not vote. The birth of democracy in modern times is based on this expansion of communication. Which has also helped to strengthen the awareness of belonging to a community .

Bahrain Phone Number List

The Netherlands and England, which had modernized their representative systems, faced public debt much more effectively than their absolutist neighbors. Their governments, controlled by representative parliaments, generated confidence in investors, who bought public debt at a very low interest rate.. “Credit and freedom are always together.”  Therefore, representative system in England, from 1688, favored the development of a modern economy and that of a state strong enough to defeat France and Spain.

The Triumph Of The

We think that, precisely, these two routes have their almost exact replica in the case of the Iberian Peninsula. Therefore, The absolutist route, which followed Castile , and the parliamentary route followed by the Crown of Aragon . This is, in our opinion, the bad fit of Catalonia in Spain and all the problems that. Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, have been defined from. The central state as “the Catalan problem”. It is not, therefore, a problem of. Language or culture, or of national recognition, or of identity proclamations: it

Therefore, is a problem of a political model and, in return, an economic one . In the Crown of Aragon. The royal margin of action was very constrained by its own legal system as the viceroys did not tire of repeating. If in Catalonia the principle “the lord king is obliged to judge according to the provisions of law” or. “The king ab the Court is above him alone”, in Castile the king dictated pragmatics that the subjects had to acatar. In the Europe of 1500 there were about 500 political units, more or less independent. Ranging from free. Cities and counties to large territorial units, such as England, France and Castile, which

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.