It appear with the French Revolution and operated on the basis of national consciousness, transforming it into a kind of political identity with a democratic stamp.the republican mentality finds its identity not so much in common features of ethnic-cultural type as in the praxis of citizens who actively exercise their democratic rights of participation. There is, therefore, no confrontation between identity and citizenship, but the citizenry (understanding it as participation) takes advantage of the existence of an identity, in the sense that it is easier to exercise rights democratically if there has been an intersubjectively shared praxis.

It is difficult for an underlying recognition of equality to emerge in all citizens without the prior existence of a model that focuses on the fact that political autonomy is an end in itself that no one can accomplish alone, but must realize. – by all in common through a shared praxis. “The invention of the people-nation had a catalytic effect on the democratization of state power, since a basis for the legitimation of political domination would not have arisen without national consciousness.” , proper to the national consciousness, we pass to the acquired citizenship , democratically constituted. In this step it is not an absorption of the national consciousness by the republican mentality, but a weaving. Citizenship , conceptually, has always been independent of national identity.

From The Ascribed Nationality

Most of the conflicts currently generated by the national question – especially from a theoretical point of view – arise from a confrontation between the two components of the nation. In Singapore Phone Number ormal situations, the integrative instance and the legitimating one are intertwined. The problem arises when one of them acquires excessive preeminence. Excess in national consciousness leads to self-indulgent fundamentalism, but the emphasis on the Republican mentality can lead to social fragmentation that makes society itself inoperable. The problem that Habermas denounces in turn-of-the-century Germany is that the patriotic beat that reflects the nation’s


Therefore, desire for political power — the national consciousness — has nullified the nation-building factor. That affirms freedom and self-determination. politics crystallized in democracy – the republican mentality. Faced with the reunification of Germany. Habermas proposes a patriotism of the constitution to balance both components.This constitutional patriotism consists in creating a sense of belonging to a community based on adherence to democratic values ​​and respect for human rights enshrined in the Constitution. It cannot be based on tradition or history, as they are very close to Nazism: in the German case, basing a nationalism based exclusively on national consciousness – on the data provided by history and tradition

The Attempt To Create

– was especially complicated. The attempt to overcome the “two German dictatorships” encourages a post-national political identity that dissociates itself from. The background of a past told in terms of national history and that focuses on the universalist content. Of a form of patriotism crystallized around the principles of the democratic constitutional state ”. There is talk of patriotism to raise national consciousness; there is talk of a constitution to assimilate the republican mentality. In the same way that Habermas advocates a conjunction between popular sovereignty and human rights to establish a criterion

Therefore, of political legitimacy — that is, a mixture of latent irrationality in the tyranny of number and. The underlying rationality in the recognition of certain values. objectified – a similar construction is propos. Here in which what is emotional and what is rational are alternat.  As indispensable parts to achieve a legitimacy of national sentiment. It is a matter of harmonizing the “born nation” which operates as an element of. Social integration and the “beloved nation” which acts as a factor of democratic legitimacy. The emergence of nation-states in modernity demanded a new kind of adherence and patriotism, which is

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