.Its application was, however, The central government, therefore, disregard commitments to provide certain public services, knowing that they would be neglect by  the resources. In 1898, half of the schools provid for in the Moyano Law did not yet exist, 60% of the child population was out of school, 64% of Spaniards were illiterate, and most of those who could read and write had studi in private institutions. Catholics. And it must be borne in mind that the Catholic Church was not only anti-liberal, but also anti-state, and that by contesting ucational powers in the state, it became anti-national, a clear obstacle to nationalization.

The public school remain clos in on itself, disseminating reactionary, traditionalist and unscientific content, so it was totally  for its limit quality. That school a patriotic discourse that serv as a factor of integration and social modernization and, therefore, of nationalization. The Spanish state of the 19th century made no effort to create public schools where, as Pierre Vilar says, they had to “be made Spanish”. They dominat the religious schools and in them catholics made. In addition, due to the reactionary nature and the social disrepute of the Spanish public school.

Was Unable To Spread

Therefore, regulation of Calomarde primary schools, of 1824, still maintain the requirement that to choose to be a primary school teacher, a certificate of purity of blood), at the end of the century Algeria Phone Number  much of the ucation was taken up by popular private initiatives, such as athenaeums or secular schools, linkto the republican, socialist or anarchist ideological and cultural world, which transmitt values ​​oppos to the establish system. Military service Military service was a second major avenue for the integration of the rural population into the new national identity. Nor did the Spanish army serve as a channel for the social.


Therefore, integration and nationalization of Spaniards. the nineteenth century, the army creat. The image of a classist and isolat institution, mark by a strict caste spirit, increasingly aristocratic and conservative. His frequent interventions as a repressive force in political and social conflicts creat a reputation for being an institution devot primarily to the control of the internal order. We must add the well-known popular rejection of compulsory military service in nineteenth-century Spain, the fifth; a military service from which the rich indulg could not be consider patriotic: how to preach the sacrifice for the.

In The Course Of

Therefore, fatherland if not everyone did the soldier? Compulsory military service is said to have nationalizing effects by breaking the isolation in which many people liv and living. With other people in other regions and practicing a common language, and receiving. A bath of rhetoric about good at home. The army never play in Spain the unifying. Role it play in other European states, in which military service was compulsory for all citizens. And all this was especially important in a country like. Spain, which in the course of sixty-five years.

Therefore, wars. National symbols The adoption and dissemination of a set of national symbols is necessary for the extension of nationalist sentiments. Eric Hobsbawm speaks of the “invention of tradition” to refer to the process of creating, by nineteenth-century. European states, flags, anthems, commemorative ceremonies, festivals, monuments. Street names, and other symbols and rituals that they were intend to be. The expression of a collective entity of immemorial antiquity. 1. The national flag “National flag.” Was the term in the decree of. Charles III which provid for the use, by the navy, of a rectangular banner with three

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